Art, Art & Archives, Getty Research Institute

Treasures from the Vault: Welcome to Alfred Schmela’s Art Gallery!

An important archive on postwar art is now available for research at the Getty Research Institute.

After several months of writing and archival processing, I’ve just finished my work on the archive of Galerie Schmela. The archive’s 172 boxes and 25 flat file folders are listed and described here.

The records of Galerie Schmela in Düsseldorf document the business of the German art dealer Alfred Schmela (1918–1980) from his inaugural show in 1957 until his death in 1980, as well as the continuation of the gallery by Schmela’s wife and daughter during the 1990s.

Alfred Schmela passionately sought out and promoted new and self-conscious artists emerging in the changing social, political, and cultural landscapes of postwar Europe and United States. “Go to Galerie Schmela” was the insider tip for those in the young European and American art scene. Schmela was one of the first in Germany to exhibit the “new” Americans Gordon Matta-Clark and Bruce Nauman. Arman, Robert Indiana, Robert Morris, Kenneth Noland, Richard Tuttle also exhibited at Galerie Schmela.

The artists shown by Schmela represented various and often overlapping tendencies such as Monochrome, Kinetic Art, Performance or Happenings, Nouveau Réalisme, Spatialism, Auto-Destructive art, and a general fascination with perception and technology. Schmela played a pivotal role in the development of ZERO, a group of artists formed in the mid-1950s by Heinz Mack, Otto Piene, and Günther Uecker in opposition to Art Informel. He also was a personal friend of German performance artist and influential art theorist Joseph Beuys and a committed advocate of his art.

It was at Galerie Schmela where, on November 26, 1965, Beuys covered his head with gold leaf and honey and walked around with a dead hare cradled in his arms, whispering to the dead animal about the surrounding art. This famous action, known as How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare, is regarded as the culmination of Beuys’s influential and controversial teachings on art, known as the “extended definition of art.”

Me with documents from the Galerie Schmela archive in the Special Collections Reading Room at the Research Library, Getty Research Institute

Me with documents from the Galerie Schmela archive in the Special Collections Reading Room at the Research Library, Getty Research Institute

Another pivotal event organized by Galerie Schmela was the mourning over the third and last issue of ZERO the magazine—which was also the celebration and inauguration of ZERO the art group. This action was called “Edition-Exposition-Demonstration” and took place on July 5, 1961, in the street in front of the gallery and inside.

Galerie Schmela was also the place where, in 1957, Yves Klein exhibited his blue monochromatic canvases in his first solo show in Germany. Otto Piene’s series of light paintings, Light Ballet, were first shown at Galerie Schmela in 1959, as were Arman’s dustbins in 1960.

Other artists who had their first solo show, or first solo show in Germany, at Galerie Schmela are Lucio Fontana, Sam Francis, Jörg Immendorff, Konrad Klapheck, Morris Louis, Georges Mathieu, Gordon Matta-Clark, Robert Morris, Kenneth Noland, Martial Raysse, George Segal, Antoni Tàpies, Jean Tinguely, Günther Uecker—and many others.

The Schmela archive at the Getty Research Institute contains hundreds of rare vintage photographs of performances, exhibitions, and artwork central to the development of art in Europe and United States after World War II.

Rich in detail regarding individual artwork and exhibition activities is Schmela’s correspondence with artists such as Shusaku Arakawa, Joseph Beuys, Christo, Lucio Fontana, Michael Gitlin, Robert Indiana, Christian Löwenstein, Georges Mathieu, Robert Morris, Walter Pichler, Otto Piene, Yvonne Rainer, Raphael Jesús Soto, and Richard Tuttle…just to name a few.

Extensive correspondence with collectors, art dealers, museum curators, and art critics is also part of the archive. It reveals the instrumental role Schmela played in shaping the art market by introducing and promoting innovative and challenging contemporary art.

Also in the archive is a sizeable collection of small exhibition catalogs, invitations, and posters on a vast number of artists, European and American, and an impressive collection of exhibition reviews and other articles on contemporary art and artists dating from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, clipped from German press, predominantly from the Rhine Region.

Galerie Schmela records are now open for use by researchers at the Research Library. I look forward to what new stories about postwar art they will help us tell.

“Treasures from the Vault” is an occasional series spotlighting the varied and unique holdings of the Research Library at the Getty Research Institute.

Tagged , , , , : . Bookmark the permalink. Post a comment or leave a trackback: Trackback URL.


  1. Judy Wolf
    Posted July 11, 2011 at 9:01 pm | Permalink

    Fascinating information, seeing the link that Alfred Schelma’s Galerie had to so many artists and the movements that they were linked to. I enjoyed finding out about How to Explain Art to a Dead Hare. I enjoyed reading this blog and learning more about the artists of that time.

  2. Posted August 28, 2012 at 6:16 am | Permalink

    I am not sure if you are the person to communicate with. The first week of September I will be in los Angeles and I would like to work in the Schmela archive. I have made a list with documents and photos I would like to see or hear. I am director ZERO foundation, and therefore interested in all artist related to the German group ZERO.

    If you are not the person to talk with, can you please be so friendly to forward my mail or let me know who I should contact?

    Best Regards,
    Tijs Visser

    ZERO foundation
    Zollhof 11
    D-40221 Düsseldorf
    Phone 0049 (0)211 59805978
    IPhone 0049 (0)173 7312750

Post a Comment

Your email is never published or shared. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>


  • Facebook

  • Twitter

  • Tumblr

    • photo from Tumblr

      A Brief History of the Fleur-de-lis in Art

      The fleur-de-lis, a familiar symbol with varied meanings and a rather obscure origin.

      If you read the labels of objects in museums bearing the fleur-de-lis (in French, fleur de lys, pronounced with the final “s”), you might notice that they were all made in France before the French Revolution of 1789. 

      What’s less apparent is that the fleur-de-lis marks objects that bear witness to a dramatic history of monarchy, democracy, and war: they speak to the inherent power of trappings commissioned for and by France’s pre-revolutionary kings.

      Adopted as a royal emblem in France by the 1100s, the fleur-de-lis can be traced to early Frankish monarchs including Clovis I, who converted to Christianity in 496, and the renowned Charlemagne. 

      A French word, fleur-de-lis translates literally to “lily flower.” This is appropriate given the association of lilies with purity (and the Virgin Mary) and given that France has long been known as the “Eldest Daughter of the Church.” In truth, the stylized flower most closely resembles a yellow iris. 

      As a heraldic symbol used in the arms of the French monarchy, the fleur-de-lis often appears in yellow or gold tones and set on a blue shield. 

      Given its intimate royal associations, the fleur-de-lis invoked the ire of revolutionaries even before the fall of the monarchy in 1792. In addition to toppling royal statues, vandals chipped away at crowns and fleurs-de-lis adorning the façades of buildings.

      Full blog post on the Getty Iris here.


  • Flickr