Page from a manuscript, featuring a colorful illustration of shepherds and the Magi surrounding the infant Christ

Nativity of Christ with the Adoration of the Shepherds and the Magi, 1615, Armenian. Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment, 9 1/16 x 6 5/16 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. 118 (originally from Ms. Ludwig II 7). Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

This recently acquired leaf from a 17th-century Armenian manuscript shows the Christian story of the miraculous arrival of the Christ child on earth. In the early 20th century, the leaf was cut out of its original book, likely by an art dealer. However, we are now able to reunite it with the parent volume and a second detached leaf, which have been in Getty’s collection since 1983, and gain a renewed understanding of the manuscript as a whole.

Along with an Armenian manuscript from the 16th century, this leaf arrived to the Getty manuscript department last winter as part of the department’s continued efforts to extend the bounds of the collection beyond western Europe. Together, these two new acquisitions bring Getty’s Armenian manuscripts collection to seven. They allow us to tell richer stories in our exhibitions and to present a more complete history of Armenian illumination.

Tradition and Innovation in a New Gospel Book

Page of a manuscript featuring an illustration in mostly reds and greens of a man seated at a table wearing flowing robes and holding a tablet

Saint Matthew from a Gospel book, 1583, Armenian. Tempera colors and ink on parchment, 9 3/4 x 7 1/16 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. 119, fol. 18v. Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

The 16th-century Armenian book was illuminated by a brother and sister team, Ghoukas and Eghisabet, who are named in the manuscript. Eghisabet is only the second known female illuminator to be featured in our collection. The manuscript is a Gospel book, containing the four Gospels of the Christian Bible. Gospel books were among the most precious and revered manuscripts in medieval Armenia because of their sacred nature and their use during church services.

This Gospel book opens with a cycle of twenty full-page illuminations showing scenes from Christian sacred history. Each of the four books of the Gospel begins with a portrait of an Evangelist, and, throughout the manuscript, numerous smaller decorative motifs highlight divisions in the text. An inscription at the end of the volume—conventional in Armenian manuscripts—names the patron, Mirza Djan; the artists, Ghoukas and Eghisabet; and the scribes, Mik’ayel and Ohannes. It also says that it was written in 1583 for a monastery in the borough of Karbi, which is in modern Armenia.

This manuscript allows us to look more broadly at how Armenian illumination developed across time. It offers a visual link between the Getty’s two other Armenian Gospel books, one from the 14th century, and one from the 17th century. Both of these manuscripts have or formerly had a decorative cycle similar to that of the new manuscript.

Drawing of Jesus standing in a pool of water being baptized by a religious figure, with a bird facing downward towards his head and a hand extending from the top of the drawing

The Baptism of Christ from a Gospel book, 1386, Armenian. Tempera and ink on parchment, 9 7/16 × 6 1/2 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. Ludwig II 6, fol. 7. Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

Drawing of Jesus surrounded by spiritual figures and dark waters, with one man wearing robes touching Jesus’s head

The Baptism of Christ from a Gospel book, 1583, Armenian. Tempera and ink on parchment, 9 3/4 x 7 1/16 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. 119, fol. 4. Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

Drawing of Jesus standing between a man who is caressing his head, and a woman who is holding a bowl of fruit, with all standing on a pool of water

The Baptism of Christ, 1615, Armenian. Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment, 9 × 6 3/4 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. Ludwig II 7a. Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

Comparing the image of the baptism of Christ from each of the three manuscripts shows that the earliest manuscript is marked by fluid outlining, a limited use of color, and bare settings, while the later manuscript shows more convincing bodily forms, brilliant color contrasts, and extensive background patterning. The new Gospel book preserves much of the linearity of the earlier book, now expressed within frames and with the bolder vocabulary of color and pattern that characterizes the later book.

Drawing of a tree, with rows of men in red and pink robes sitting on the branches and two men at the top of the tree

The Jesse Tree from a Gospel book, 1583, Armenian. Tempera and ink on parchment, 9 3/4 x 7 1/16 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. 119, fol. 11v. Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

Drawing of figures playing instruments, one person seated as if meditating, and three people lying together on a bed, and row of people climbing a ladder

The Path 1583, Armenian. Tempera and ink on parchment, 9 3/4 x 7 1/16 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. 119, fol. 6v. Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

The tradition of Armenian illumination centers around a series of standardized images related to the main themes of Christianity that are repeated regularly in Gospel books. This Gospel book is unusual in that it represents subjects that are rare within the greater corpus of Armenian illumination, including a full-page illustration of the Tree of Jesse (showing the ancestors of Christ), a relatively uncommon motif in Armenian art. Another scene shows souls climbing up a ladder to Christ or being consumed in hell. For this striking image, we have found only one comparable image in the entirety of the Armenian tradition, which, until now, has been described as unique. Neither of these scenes was previously represented in the collection.

Page of a manuscript featuring an illustration in mostly reds and greens of a man seated at a table wearing flowing robes and holding a tablet

Saint Matthew from a Gospel book, 1583, Armenian. Tempera colors and ink on parchment, 9 3/4 x 7 1/16 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. 119, fol. 18v. Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

Drawing of a bearded man holding a writing instrument and a blank book

Saint Luke, about 1504–1505, Ethiopian. Tempera on parchment, 13 9/16 × 10 7/16 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. 102, fol. 143v. Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

Drawing of a man sitting on a chair in front of a writing desk, bending over an open book in his lap

Saint Luke, late 13th century, Byzantium. Tempera and gold on parchment, 8 1/4 × 5 7/8 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. 65, fol. 159v. Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

The portraits of the four Evangelists in the new manuscript recall ones in Ethiopian and Byzantine Gospel books, both of which are represented in Getty’s collections. Each of these traditions frequently included portraits of the four Evangelists writing their Gospels. In all of these images, the writer sits to the left, his thoughtful face tilted toward the reader. With his right hand, he begins to write the opening words of his gospel.

Drawing of figures playing instruments, one person seated as if meditating, and three people lying together on a bed, and row of people climbing a ladder

The Path, 1583, Armenian. Tempera and ink on parchment, 9 3/4 x 7 1/16 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. 119, fol. 6v. Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

Two of the new manuscript’s full-page illustrations seem to be by a different hand than the rest.  These illustrations use a more restricted color palette, and, unlike the other images, contain areas that are outlined, but lack the decorative patterning pervasive in other scenes. An inscription says Eghisabet “completed” the illumination, so we believe she painted the two facing images that illustrate the Path of Life (shown above) and the Betrayal of Christ.

Page from medieval text with writing in the right column and a drawing of a soldier on horseback in the left column

Tristan and Lucan Jousting, about 1320–40, French. Tempera, gold paint, silver and gold leaf, and ink on parchment, 15 1/2 × 11 3/4 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. Ludwig XV 5, fol. 302. Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

Most medieval manuscripts are not signed by their artists, and manuscript illuminations painted by an identified female artist are even rarer. The image above shows the only other book in the Getty’s collection with illuminations attributed to a female artist, Jeanne de Montbaston. The new Gospel book allows us to tell a more complete, inclusive, and exciting story about artistic practice in the early modern world. Little is known about the involvement of women in the trade of manuscript illumination, but we hope that highlighting figures like Eghisabet will spark further research and understanding about their role.

Rediscovering a Page

Page from a manuscript, featuring a colorful illustration of shepherds and the Magi surrounding the infant Christ

Image: Nativity of Christ with the Adoration of the Shepherds and the Magi, 1615, Armenian. Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment, 9 1/16 x 6 5/16 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. 118 (originally from Ms. Ludwig II 7). Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

The Getty’s second recent Armenian acquisition is a single, detached manuscript leaf with a large, brilliantly colored painting of the Nativity of Christ with the Adoration of the Shepherds and the Magi.

A trio of angels looks on from the upper right, as a ray of blue light shines from the heavens onto the Christ child, who is held by the reclining Virgin Mary. Joseph rests his hand on his face next to a shepherd, who plays a flute, while the ox and ass watch from above. At right, the three magi offer their gifts. The painting’s dynamic, geometric shapes and vibrant colors form a composition of great energy and vitality.

Drawing of bearded man surrounded by yellow light, touching the head of a man who is kneeling in front of him and pointing at a book

Saint John the Evangelist, 1615, Armenian. Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment, 9 1/16 × 6 3/4 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. 118 (originally from Ms. Ludwig II 7) Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program ).

The leaf was once part of a manuscript already in Getty’s collection, which was made in 1615 in Isfahan, Persia, and illustrated by the Armenian artist Mesrop of Khizan. When the Getty Museum acquired that Gospel book in 1983, a series of paintings grouped at the beginning of the manuscript had already been separated from the rest of the book for over 50 years. We do not know who cut out the pages, but dealers have been breaking up medieval books for centuries (a practice condemned today) to sell their parts separately for a greater price than the whole could fetch.

Drawing of Jesus standing between a man who is caressing his head, and a woman who is holding a bowl of fruit, with all standing on a pool of water

The Baptism of Christ, 1615, Armenian. Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment, 9 × 6 3/4 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. Ludwig II 7a. Digital image courtesy of Getty’s Open Content Program

This new object is the second detached leaf that the Getty now owns from the opening cycle of the manuscript. In 1985, the manuscripts department acquired a leaf with an image of the Baptism. The painting uses the same bold colors, wavy, segmented patterns, and dynamic figures that characterize the new leaf. Three further leaves from the manuscript belong to the Chester Beatty library in Dublin, but the locations of the remaining leaves are unknown.

In studying and displaying the parts of the manuscript together, we hope to foster a better understanding of the manuscript’s original organization and imagery and of the vicissitudes of its long history.

In a note at the end of the above-described Gospel book, the artist Mesrop wrote, “God gave my feeble body strength to complete this book…” However, time can fragment and complicate even the most precious objects. These acquisitions allow us to reconstitute elements of cultural heritage and preserve them for future generations. They also challenge us to deepen and expand our understanding of Armenian manuscript illumination. We look forward to the study and excitement these two new members of the manuscripts collection will inspire.