Art, Exhibitions and Installations, J. Paul Getty Museum, Manuscripts and Books

The Manuscript Files: An Impish Ape in a Medieval Zoo

One of my favorite acquisitions of the past five years in the Getty’s manuscript collection is the Northumberland Bestiary (Ms. 100), featured currently in the Gothic Grandeur exhibition.

A bestiary is a kind of medieval encyclopedia of animals. In addition to physical and behavioral descriptions, however, there is also commentary about each animal as a reflection of God’s divine plan for the world.

Adam Naming the Animals in the Northumberland Bestiary / English

Adam Naming the Animals in the Northumberland Bestiary, unknown illuminator, English (London), about 1250–60. Ink tinted with body color and translucent washes on parchment, bound between pasteboard and covered with red morocco, each leaf 8 1/4 x 6 3/16 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. 100, fol. 5v

The Northumberland Bestiary begins with a series of images depicting the Creation of the World, including, of course, the creation of the animals. This image near the beginning of the manuscript shows the first man, Adam, presiding over a gathering of all the world’s beasts.

At first the image looks like a jumble of animals—an eagle, a deer, a lion, a rooster, even a porcupine and a snail—all randomly scattered over the surface of the page. A closer look, however, reveals that the creatures are often paired: a foxlike animal bites the throat of a horse; a bird peers at an owl carrying a hapless mouse; a wild boar seems to launch itself from the back of a camel.

Details of animals in Adam Naming the Animals in the Northumberland Bestiary / English

These intricate details engage the viewer and indicate that the artist carefully planned and designed the page. Among all of the various encounters between the animals, however, only one creature directly engages the viewer, and unlike its charming companions on the page, this animal seems somehow sinister.

Detail of menacing ape in Adam Naming the Animals in the Northumberland Bestiary / English

The ape, with almost diabolical glee, peers out at the viewer in challenge. The bestiary text notes that this animal is called Simia in Latin, because of its similarity to humans, but with a cunning character. They text continues with the fact that apes are often equated with the devil, for just as each one has a head but no tail, so Satan began as an angel in heaven, but “he lost his tail, because he will perish totally at the end.”

As with every beast featured in the bestiary, then, the ape serves as an animal symbol of some aspect of Christianity. On this page, only Adam and the ape gaze directly out of the image to meet the viewer’s eye—one the regal founder of the human race, and the other a degraded reflection of man, encompassing his evil possibilities.

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  1. Posted March 2, 2012 at 2:06 pm | Permalink

    So interesting, reminds me of Umberto Eco’s ‘Name of the Rose’ and his wonderfully evocative descriptions.

  2. Posted March 14, 2012 at 3:59 pm | Permalink

    Wow, gotta say this monkey looks as creepy as the Joker in the Dark Knight. His eyes look all sunk in a shadowy, as if he hasn’t slept, dreaming of diabolical deeds that he can perpetrate. Wicked cool.

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      Olympian Census #4: Aphrodite

      Get the stats on your favorite (and not-so-favorite) gods and goddesses on view at the Getty Center.

      Roman name: Venus

      Employment: Goddess of Love and Beauty

      Place of residence: Mount Olympus

      Parents: Born out of sea foam formed when Uranus’s castrated genitals were thrown into the ocean

      Marital status: Married to Hephaestus, the God of Blacksmiths, but had many lovers, both immortal and mortal

      Offspring: Aeneas, Cupid, Eros, Harmonia, Hermaphroditos, and more

      Symbol: Dove, swan, and roses

      Special talent: Being beautiful and sexy could never have been easier for this Greek goddess

      Highlights reel:

      • Zeus knew she was trouble when she walked in (Sorry, Taylor Swift) to Mount Olympus for the first time. So Zeus married Aphrodite to his son Hephaestus (Vulcan), forming the perfect “Beauty and the Beast” couple.
      • When Aphrodite and Persephone, the queen of the underworld, both fell in love with the beautiful mortal boy Adonis, Zeus gave Adonis the choice to live with one goddess for 1/3 of the year and the other for 2/3. Adonis chose to live with Aphrodite longer, only to die young.
      • Aphrodite offered Helen, the most beautiful mortal woman, to Paris, a Trojan prince, to win the Golden Apple from him over Hera and Athena. She just conveniently forgot the fact that Helen was already married. Oops. Hello, Trojan War!

      Olympian Census is a 12-part series profiling gods in art at the Getty Center.


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